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Priesthood of YHVH: Past

The Books of Heaven

Acts 7:38

This is he, that was of the called out assembly in the wilderness with the angel which spoke to him in Mount Sinai and with our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us.

Jubilees 33:10

For this reason it is written and ordained on the heavenly tablets that a man should not lie with his father’s woman.

Jubilees 12:27

And he [Abraham] took the books of his fathers, and these were written in Hebrew, and he transcribed them, and he began to study them, and I made known to him which he could not understand, and he studied them during the six rainy months.

Jubilees 32:21

And he saw in a vision of the night, and behold an angel descended from heaven and seven tablets in his hands, and he gave them to Jacob, and he read them and knew all that was written therein which would befall him and his son’s throughout the ages.

1 Enoch 103:1-2

But now I swear to you, by the greatness of his splendor and his glory, by his illustrious kingdom and by his majesty, to you I swear, that I comprehend this mystery. I have read the tablet of heaven and have seen the writings of the holy ones, and have discovered what is written and impressed on it concerning you. That all goodness, joy, and glory has been prepared for you, and been written down for the spirits of them who die righteous and good.

Jubilees 6:17

For this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tablets, that they should celebrate the Feast of Shavout in this month once a year, to renew the covenant every year.

Jubilees 32:8-9

He tithed all clean animals, and made a burnt sacrifice, but he did not give the unclean animals to Levi his son. He have him responsibility for all the souls of men . Levi acted in the priestly office at Bethel in the presence of Jacob his father, in preference to his ten brothers. He was a priest there, and Jacob have his vow, and he gave a tithe to the Lord again and sanctified it, and it became holy to him. For this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tablets as a law for the offering of the tithe should be eaten in the presence of the Lord every year, in the place where it is chosen that His name should live and reside. This law has no limit of days forever.


Priests existed before Levi

Exodus 19:22-24

Now Mount Sinai was all in smoke because the Lord descended upon it in fire; and its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the entire mountain quaked violently. When the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him with thunder. Then the Lord came down on Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain; and the Lord called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. Then the Lord spoke to Moses: “Go down, warn the people, so that they do not break through to the Lord to stare, and many of them perish. Also have the priests who approach the Lord consecrate themselves, or else the Lord will break out against them.” And Moses said to the Lord, “The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai, for You warned us, saying, ‘Set boundaries around the mountain and consecrate it.’” Then the Lord said to him, “Go down and come up again, you and Aaron with you; but do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to the Lord, or He will break out against them.” So Moses went down to the people and told them.


The Garden of Eden

Jubilees 3:10-13

And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till [serve] and guard it, but his woman they brought in on the eighth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden. And for this reason the commandment is written on the heavenly tablets in regard to her that gives birth. If she bares a male, she shall remain in her uncleanness seven days, and thirty and three days shall she remain in the blood of her purifying, and she shall not touch any sanctified thing nor enter into the sanctuary, until she accomplishes these days which are enjoyed in the case of a male child. But in the case of a female child, she shall remain in her uncleanness two weeks, and sixty six days in the blood of her purification and they will be in all eighty days. And when she had completed these eighty days, we brought her into the Garden in Eden for it is holier than all the Earth and every tree is planted in it is holy.

Ezekiel 36:35

“And they will say, ‘This desolated land has become like the Garden of Eden; and the waste, desolated and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited.’”



Jubilees 3:28

And on that day on which Adam went forth from the Garden, he offered as a sweet savor, an offering, frankincense, galbanum, and stacte, and spices in the morning with the rising of the sun from the day when he covered his shame.


Cain & Abel give First Fruits offerings

Genesis 4:3-5 NASB

So it came about in the course of time that Cain brought an offering to the Lord from the fruit of the ground. Abel, on his part also brought an offering, from the firstborn of his flock and from their fat portions. And the Lord had regard for Abel and his offering,  but for Cain and his offering He had no regard. So Cain became very angry and his face was gloomy.

Genesis 4:1-7 Septuagint

And Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and brought forth Cain and said, I have gained a man through God. And she again bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. And it was so after some time that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice to the Lord. And Abel also brought of the firstborn of his sheep and of his fatlings, and God looked upon Abel and his gifts. But Cain and his sacrifices were regarded not, and Cain was exceedingly sorrowful and his countenance fell. And the Lord God said to Cain, Why have you become very sorrowful and why has your countenance fallen? Have you not sinned, if you brought it rightly but have not rightly divided it? Be still, to you shall be his submission, and you shall rule over him.

Leviticus 2:9-14

Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 10 “Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘When you enter the land which I am going to give to you and you gather its harvest, then you shall bring in the sheaf of the first fruits of your harvest to the priest. 11 He shall wave the sheaf before the Lord for you to be accepted; on the day after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it. 12 Now on the day when you wave the sheaf, you shall offer a male lamb one year old without defect as a burnt offering to the Lord. 13 Its grain offering shall then be [c]two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil, an offering by fire to the Lord for a soothing aroma, with its drink offering, a [d]fourth of a hin of wine. 14 Until this very day, until you have brought in the offering of your God, you shall eat neither bread nor roasted grain nor new produce. It is to be a permanent statute throughout your generations in all your dwelling places.



Jubilees 4:11-12

And in the fifth week of the fifth Jubilee, Seth took Azura his sister to be his woman and in the forth year of the sixth week she bore him Enosh and he began to call upon the name of Yahweh on the Earth.



Enoch 15:1

Then addressing me, He spoke and said, Hear, neither be afraid, Oh righteous Enoch, you scribe of righteousness, approach and hear my voice. Go and say to the watchers of heaven, who have sent you to pray for them, ‘you ought to pray for men, and not men for you.’”

Genesis 5:21

Enoch lived sixty and five years and begat Methuselah, and Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years.


Enoch > Methuselah > Lamech > Noah

Jubilees 7:38-39

For thus did Enoch, the father of your father, command Methuselah his son, and Methusealh his son Lemek, and Lemek commanded me all the things which his fathers commanded him.

Leviticus 16:32-33

“So the priest who is anointed and ordained to serve as priest in his father’s place shall make atonement: he shall put on the linen garments, the holy garments, and make atonement for the holy sanctuary, and he shall make atonement for the tent of meeting and for the altar. He shall also make atonement for the priests and for all the people of the assembly.”



Genesis 8:20

Then Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took some of every kind of clean animal and some of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar.

Genesis 9:25

So he said, “Cursed be Canaan; A servant of servants He shall be to his brothers.”

Jubilees 7:3

And he celebrated with Joy the day of this feast, and he made a burnt sacrifice to the Lord, one young ox and one ram, and seven sheep, each a year old, and a kid of the goats, tat he might make atonement thereby for himself and his sons.

Jubilees 7:20

In the twenty-eighth jubilee, Noah began to direct his sons in the ordinances and commandments, and al the judgments that he knew, and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honor father and mother, and love their neighbor, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity.



Leviticus 1:17

Then he shall tear it by its wings, but shall not sever it. And the priest shall offer it up in smoke on the altar, on the wood which is on the fire; it is a burnt offering, an offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the Lord.

Genesis 15:10

Then he brought all these to Him and cut them in two, and laid each half opposite the other; but he did not cut the birds.

Jubilees 16: 20-31
“And he (Abraham) built there an altar to the Lord who had delivered him, and who was making him rejoice in the land of his sojourning, and he celebrated a festival of joy in this month seven days, near the altar which he had built at the Well of the Oath. And he built booths for himself and for his servants on this festival, and he was the first to celebrate the feast of tabernacles on the earth.” “And during these seven days he brought each day to the altar a burnt offering to the Lord, two oxen, two rams, seven sheep, one he-goat, for a sin offering, that he might atone thereby for himself and for his seed. And, as a thank-offering, seven rams, seven kids, seven sheep, and seven he-goats, and their fruit offerings and their drink offerings; and he burnt all the fat thereof on the altar, a chosen offering unto the Lord for a sweet smelling savour. And morning and evening he burnt fragrant substances, frankincense and galbanum, and stackte, and nard, and myrrh, and spice, and costum; all these seven he offered, crushed, mixed together in equal parts and pure. And he celebrated this feast during seven days, rejoicing with all his heart and with all his soul, he and all those who were in his house, and there was no stranger with him, nor any that was uncircumcised. And he blessed his Creator who had created him in his generation, for He had created him according to His good pleasure; for He knew and perceived that from him would arise the plant of righteousness for the eternal generations, and from him a holy seed, so that it should become like Him who had made all things. And he blessed and rejoiced, and he called the name of this festival the festival of the Lord, a joy acceptable to the Most High God. And we blessed him for ever, and all his seed after him throughout all the generations of the earth, because he celebrated this festival in its season, according to the testimony of the heavenly tablets. For this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tablets concerning Israel, that they shall celebrate the feast of tabernacles seven days with joy, in the seventh month, acceptable before the Lord -a statute for ever throughout their generations every year. And to this there is no limit of days; for it is ordained for ever regarding Israel that they should celebrate it and dwell in booths, and set wreaths upon their heads, and take leafy boughs, and willows from the brook. And Abraham took branches of palm trees, and the fruit of goodly trees, and every day going round the altar with the branches seven times a day in the morning, he praised and gave thanks to his God for all things in joy.”

Jubilees 19: 16-17

And Abraham saw the deeds of Esau and he knew that in Jacob should his name and offspring be called. He called Rebecca and gave commandment regarding Jacob, for he knew that she too loved Jacob much more than Esau. He said to her, “my daughter, watch over my son Jacob, for he shall take my place on the Earth. He shall be a blessing throughout the children of men and for the glory of all the offspring of Shem.


Testament of Levi 9:1-10:1

And after two days I (Levi) and Judah went up with our father Jacob to Isaac our father's father. And my father's father blessed me according to all the words of the visions which I had seen. And he would not come with us to Bethel. And when we came to Bethel, my father saw a vision concerning me, that I should be their priest unto God. And he rose up early in the morning, and paid tithes of all to the Lord through me. And so we came to Hebron to dwell there. And Isaac called me continually to put me in remembrance of the law of the Lord, even as the angel of the Lord showed unto me.  And he taught me the law of the priesthood of sacrifices, whole burnt-offerings, first-fruits, freewill-offerings, peace-offerings. And each day he was instructing me, and was busied on my behalf before the Lord, and said to me: Beware of the spirit of fornication; for this shall continue and shall by thy seed pollute the holy place. Take, therefore, to thyself a wife without blemish or pollution, while yet thou are young, and not of the race of strange nations. And before entering into the holy place, bathe; and when thou offerest the sacrifice, wash; and again, when thou finishest the sacrifice, wash. Of twelve trees having leaves offer to the Lord, as Abraham taught me also. And of every clean beast and bird offer a sacrifice to the Lord. And of all thy first-fruits and of wine offer the first, as a sacrifice to the Lord God; and every sacrifice thou shalt salt with salt. Now, therefore, observe whatsoever I command you, children; for whatsoever things I have heard from my fathers I have declared unto you.



Jubilees 31:14

“And he turned to Levi first, and began to bless him first, and said unto him, may the Elohim of all, the very Yahweh of all ages, bless you and your children throughout all the ages. And may Yahweh give to you and to your seed greatness and great glory, and cause you and your seed from among all flesh, to approach him to serve in the sanctuary as the angels of the presence and as the holy ones. Even as they, shall the seed of your sons be for glory and greatness and holiness, and may he make them great unto all ages. And they shall be judges and princes and chiefs of all the seed of the sons of Jacob; they shall speak the Word of Yahweh in righteousness and they shall judge all his judgments in righteousness.”

Jubilees 19:13-17

And Jacob had no beard and was a straight and tall man who dwelt in tents, and Esau was a powerful man of the field, and he was hairy. The youths grew and Jacob learned to write, but Esau did not learn, for he was a man of the field and a hunter, and he learned war, and all his deeds were fierce.

Jubilees 19:24

In his offspring, shall my name be blessed, and the name of my fathers, Shem Noah, Enoch, Mahalalel, Enos, Seth, and Adam. And these shall serve to lay the foundations of the heavens, and to strengthen the earth and to renew all the stars and the planets which are in the sky.



Testament of Judah 21: 1-4

And now my children, I command you, love Levi, that you may abide and exalt not yourselves against him, lest you be destroyed. For to me Yahweh gave me the kingdom and to him the priesthood and he set the kingdom under the priesthood. To me he gave the things of the earth, to him the things in heaven. As the heaven is higher than the earth, so is the priesthood of Elohim higher than the earthly kingdom, unless it falls away through sin from Yahweh and is dominated by the earthly kingdom.  

Testament of Levi 9:6-10

And Isaac called me continually to put me in remembrance of the Torah of Yahweh, even as the angel of Yahweh showed me. And he taught me the Torah of the priesthood, of sacrifices, whole burnt offerings, first fruits, freewill offerings and peace offerings. And each day he was instructing me and was bruised on my behalf before Yahweh and said to me, “Beware of the Rauch of fornication, for this shall continue and shall by your seed pollute the holy place. Take therefore to yourself a woman without blemish or pollution, while yet you are young and not the race of strange nations.

Testament of Rueben 6:8

“Therefore I command you to harken to Levi, because he shall know the Torah of Yahweh and shall give ordinances for judgment and shall sacrifice for all Israel until the consummation of the times, as the anointed high priest, of whom Yahweh spoke”

Testament of Simeon 7:1-2

“And now my children, obey Levi and Judah and be not lifted up against these two tribes, for from them shall arise unto you the salvation of Elohim. For Yahweh shall raise up Levi as it were a high priest and from Judah as it were a king, he shall save all other nations and the race of Israel.”

Jubilees 32:1-5

That night he stayed at Bethel, and Levi dreamed that they had ordained and made his sons and him the priests of the Most Hugh God forever. Then he awoke from his sleep and blessed the Lord. Jacob rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth day of the month, and he gave a tither for all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment. Yes, he gave tithes of all. In those days Rachel became pregnant with her son Benjamin. Jacob counted his sons starting from him and going to the oldest and Levi fell to the portion of the Lord. His father clothed him in the garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. On the fifteenth of this month, he brought fourteen oxen from among the cattle, and twenty eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty one kids of the goats to the alter as a burnt offering on the alter of sacrifice. The offering was a well pleasing sweet odor before God. This was his offering, done in acknowledgment of the vows in which he had promised that he would give a tenth, with their fruit offerings and their drink offerings.

Jubilees 32:8-9

He tithed all clean animals, and made a burnt sacrifice, but he did not give the unclean animals to Levi his son. He have him responsibility for all the souls of men . Levi acted in the priestly office at Bethel in the presence of Jacob his father, in preference to his ten brothers. He was a priest there, and Jacob have his vow, and he gave a tithe to the Lord again and sanctified it, and it became holy to him. For this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tablets as a law for the offering of the tithe should be eaten in the presence of the Lord every year, in the place where it is chosen that His name should live and reside. This law has no limit of days forever.

Jubilees 30:18

And the seed of Levi was chosen for the priesthood, and to be Levites, that they might minister before Yahweh, as we continually, and that Levi and his sons may be blessed forever; for he was zealous to execute righteousness and judgment and vengeance on all those who rose up against Israel.

Malachi 2:4-7

 Then you will know that I have sent this commandment to you, so that My covenant may continue with Levi,” says the Lord of armies. 5 “My covenant with him was one of life and peace, and I gave them to him as an object of reverence; so he revered Me and was in awe of My name. 6 True instruction was in his mouth and injustice was not found on his lips; he walked with Me in peace and justice, and he turned many back from wrongdoing. 7 For the lips of a priest should maintain knowledge, and people should seek instruction from his mouth; for he is the messenger of the Lord of armies.



Exodus 32:30

And on the next day Moses said to the people, “You yourselves have committed a great sin; and now I am going up to the Lord; perhaps I can make atonement for your sin.


Aaron (1st High Priest of Israel)

Exodus 29:9

And you shall wrap their waists with sashes, Aaron and his sons, and fit caps on them, and they shall have the priesthood by a permanent statute. So you shall ordain Aaron and his sons.


Eleazar (2nd High Priest of Israel)

Leviticus 10:16-20

 But Moses searched carefully for the goat of the sin offering, and behold, it had been burned! So he was angry with Aaron’s surviving sons Eleazar and Ithamar, saying, 17 “Why did you not eat the sin offering at the [g]holy place? For it is most holy, and [h]He gave it to you to take away the guilt of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the Lord. 18 Behold, since its blood had not been brought inside, into the sanctuary, you certainly should have eaten it in the sanctuary, just as I commanded!” 19 But Aaron said to Moses, “Behold, this very day they presented their sin offering and their burnt offering before the Lord. When things like these happened to me, if I had eaten a sin offering today, would it have been good in the sight of the Lord?” 20 When Moses heard that, it was good in his sight.



Numbers 20:28

After the death of his older brothers Nadab and Abihu, he and his younger brother Ithamar were appointed to the charge of the sanctuary. His wife, a daughter of Putiel, bore him Phinehas, who would eventually succeed him as High Priest.

Josephus in his Antiquities V.11.2

Phinehas was already acting as high priest, his father having made way for him by reason of old age.

1 Chronicles 6:5

Abishua fathered Bukki, Bukki fathered Uzzi,

1 Chronicles 6:51

Bukki his son, Uzzi his son, Zerahiah his son,

Ezra 7:4

Abishua fathered Bukki, Bukki fathered Uzzi,

1 Samuel 4:18

When he mentioned the ark of God, Eli fell off the seat backward beside the gate, and his neck was broken and he died, for he was old and heavy. And so he judged Israel for forty years.




Eli’s son’s sinned, so the priesthood was transferred from Eli’s line to Zadok’s line

Zadok, as a patrilineal descendant of Phinehas (son of Eleazar) assumed the high priesthood. His sons were Ahimaaz and Azariah followed by his descendants who held the high priesthood up to the destruction of the First Temple and, following the building of the Second Temple, resumed the high priesthood, as per Joshua the High Priest (along with Ezra) being of Sons of Zadok lineage.

1 Chronicles 6:8

“ Ahitub fathered Zadok, Zadok fathered Ahimaaz,”

Josephus Antiquities 7.2.2

“among them were the high priest Zadok and twenty-two kinsmen as leaders.”

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